A Review of Mycotoxins Produced by Fruit Spoilage Fungi

Mycotoxins from Fruit Spoilage Fungi


  • IQBAL The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.
  • Iqra Iqbal Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan; Department of Zoology, Government College Women University Sialkot, Pakistan.
  • Fakhar-un-Nisa Yunus Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.
  • Ali Muhammad Department of Zoology, University of Poonch, Rawalakot 12350, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
  • Mirza Imran Shahzad University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan.


Fungi, Secondary metabolites, Mycotoxins, Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, Patulin, Fruit spoilage.


Fungi invade commodities extensively consumed by humans and animals and produce as secondary metabolites, low molecular weight compounds known as mycotoxins. The proliferation of various fungi in fruits leads to reduction in yield and quality with significant economic losses. Although the most important mycotoxins produced by the fruit spoilage fungi are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and the Alternaria toxins alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, and altenuene, the type, and level of mycotoxins vary by fruit type and geographic location. The increased concern about fruit safety has led to increased studies throughout the world and enhanced awareness for strict regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food.  This review aims to explore the mycotoxins produced by fruit spoilage fungi and different factors that affect mycotoxin production and their control methods.




How to Cite

Iqbal, M. N., Iqbal, I., Yunus, F.- un-N., Muhammad, A., & Shahzad, M. I. (2021). A Review of Mycotoxins Produced by Fruit Spoilage Fungi: Mycotoxins from Fruit Spoilage Fungi. PSM Biological Research, 6(2), 46–49. Retrieved from https://psmjournals.org/index.php/biolres/article/view/540



Mini Reviews

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >>