PSM Biological Research <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Biological Research (ISSN; 2517-9586) is a peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary,&nbsp; international journal that publishes research on all aspects of biology and allied sciences.</p> en-US (PSM Biological Research) (MANI MUGHAL) Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Nephroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Ficus vasta Forssk. (Moraceae) Leaves on Acetaminophen-induced Acute Renal Failure in Guinea Pigs <p>Nephrotoxicity is largely caused by metabolites of acetaminophen produced and causes damage to renal function. Medicinal plants have better activity and fewer side effects. This study was conducted to determine the protective effect of <em>Ficus vasta</em> Forssk. (Family Moraceae) ethanolic extracts protecting guinea pigs against acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity. The use of acetaminophen (PCM) suspension (2g/kg, p.o.) caused nephrotoxicity, and then treatment was done with ethanolic extract of <em>F. vasta</em> for 15 days. On day sixteen, all of the animals were given chloroform anesthesia, and kidney samples, and blood samples from each group were taken for biochemical and histological examination. In animals administrated PCM, showed a significant (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) increase of serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and a reduction of albumin and total proteins. Treatment with <em>F. vasta</em> (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) decreased serum blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine levels and caused increased total protein and albumin levels. Studies on histopathology also validate the extracts' protective properties. Restoration of serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, and albumin level was linked to the protective action of <em>F. vasta</em>. In guinea pigs exposed to acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity, ethanolic extracts of <em>F. vasta</em> demonstrated a strong nephroprotective effect.</p> Warda M. A. Kaidama, Esam Mohammed Aqlan Copyright (c) 2024 PSM Mon, 04 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Responsible for the Degradation of Tributyltin (TBT) from Freshwater Sediment <p>Bacteria in freshwater sediments usually break down Tributyltin compound (TBT) that has been discharged into the aquatic environment. The current study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria responsible for the degradation of TBT from freshwater sediments. Five distinct locations in River Benue, Makurdi, Benue state, were selected to collect samples of sediments using an Eckmangrab (Wildlife Supplies Co., Nig.), from a depth of 10 meters below the surface, placed into sterile polythene bags, and sent immediately to the laboratory for examination. Following homogenization, the sediment samples were divided into three treatments, denoted A, B, and C. Treatment A underwent heat treatment, treatment B was taken as control and TBT was added to treatment C. The bacterial identification was done using morphological and biochemical characters and the degradation experiment was done using the pour plate method. The total viable counts of freshwater sediments show that sediment A (heat treated) days 0, 14<sup>th</sup>, and 28<sup>th</sup> has the lowest total viable count of (0.00CFU/g) while water sediment B (control) day 14<sup>th</sup> has the highest total viable count of (6.1x10<sup>1</sup>±3.5x10<sup>1</sup>Cfu/g). Bacteria isolates include <em>Bacillus spp., Enterobacter, Shigella </em>spp<em>., Staphylococcus species</em>, <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp., and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Both <em>Bacillus </em>and <em>Pseudomonas </em>species have the highest percentage prevalence of 30.77% each and <em>Shigella </em>spp., has the lowest of 3.85% across samples. The observed TBT degradation efficiency and resistivity under the studied conditions suggested that <em>Bacillus </em>and <em>Pseudomonas </em>were more efficient probably due to their ability to withstand till 42 days of the experiment. There is still considerable interest in using these organisms to remove heavy metals and harmful organic contaminants. Therefore, further studies should be performed on this, in order to use bacteria in controlling organotins (TBT) environmental pollution.</p> Esther Eneyi Ebah, Joel Inya Odo, Idoko Emmanuel Ogbada, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 PSM Thu, 21 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000