PSM Veterinary Research 2023-03-30T05:00:37+00:00 PSM Veterinary Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">PSM Veterinary Research (ISSN: 2518-2714) is peer-reviewed, open access, multidisciplinary, international journal that publishes research on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences.</p> Desert Locust Invasions its Aftermath and Myth of its Existence: A Review 2023-03-30T05:00:37+00:00 Imran Arshad Muhammed Umer Rabbani Zaheer Ahmed Khan Wajiha Ali <p>The insects are the primitive inhabitants of our universe earlier than the start of mankind they are very adaptable in nature due to which they can exist right from the low to the earth to hill tops desert and arid areas as well. Insects may be classified into many categories among them some are beneficial for mankind while other inflict heavy loses to nature and mankind due to their harmful nature. Desert locust is one which is very dangerous for mankind and natural environment. Desert locusts highly have migrator nature, polymorphism and its feeding protocol is very voracious. They form swarms (adults’ congregations) very risky and hopper land (nymphal congregation) due to which when attack they erode natural and cultivated vegetation and play to havoc to nature and mankind which tantamount in food shortage, fodder facility for animals. They are the sleeping giant and can wake up and any time subject to favorable conditions. The invasion area of desert locust consists of 30 million square kilometers which includes Iran, Gulf Region, Afghanistan, Africa, Middle East, and Indian sub-continent. During recession period locust occurs in low densities and they live in a broad belt of arid and semi-arid land stretched from Atlantic to Gulf regions (United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia), and northwest India covering over 16 million square kilometers covering around 30 countries. Desert locusts migrate to survive is arid environment it is neither due to hunger nor fleeing their cannibalistic peers force these insects to migrate. This migratory behavior of these insects is due to long evolution, which enables them to revive in desert environment, where food plant production occurs due to favorable rains which entail in excellent atmosphere for these locusts.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Strengthening Veterinary Resilience: An Editorial 2022-10-18T10:04:36+00:00 R. P. Diwakar <p>No abstract available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM B-Mode and Color Doppler Sonographic Appearance of Pelvic Tendon, Ligament and Uterine Blood Flow in Non-pregnant and Heavy Pregnant Dairy Cows 2022-04-01T17:53:57+00:00 Amal Hammad Ahmed Essam Elweza Shabaan Gadallah Reda Rashed Ahmed Sharshar Hamed Elbaz <p>This study was carried out to provide comparative B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic description of pelvic tendon, ligaments, middle uterine artery and placentomes in non-pregnant and heavy pregnant cows. It also, screens pregnancy associated changes like hemodynamics of middle uterine artery and serum concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Forty pluiparous dairy cows of native breeds were scanned. The animals were separated into two groups of 20 cows, first group was non-pregnant and second group was heavy pregnant at 9<sup>th</sup> month of gestation. The examination was performed using multiple imaging B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography. Pelvic tendon and ligaments including dorsal branch of the dorsal sacroiliac ligament- thoracolumbar fascia combination (D-DSIL-TLF), lateral and ventral branches of the dorsal sacroiliac ligament (L-DSIL and V-DSIL respectively), and sacrosciatic ligament (SSL) as well as the middle uterine artery (MUA) and placentomes were monitored. Serum estrogen and progesterone concentrations were evaluated. Results revealed that pregnancy greatly influenced doppler indices and diameter of MUA, serum estrogen and progesterone concentrations, and measurements of pelvic ligaments except the thickness and cross -sectional area of D-DSIL- TLF combination. The obtained results could be used as a guide for future studies dealing with monitoring normal and abnormal pregnancy in cows.</p> 2022-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Spermatological and Bacteriological Evaluation of the Semen of Breeding Dogs 2022-07-12T00:59:25+00:00 Haitham E. Albaqly Shereen S. El-Mohandes Hazem R. Sherif Magdy R. Badr Hamed T. Elbaz Ahmed E. Elweza <p>Semen evaluation is an indispensable concept for prediction of fertility in animals. Here, we used 105 stud dogs of different breeds (German shepherd, Rottweiler and pit-bull) to investigate the spermatological characteristics (sperm motility, concentration, morphology and viability) and microbiological studies of dogs’ ejaculates. The results of spermatological characteristics revealed that sperm motility decreased to 25%, 40% and 30% and sperm cell concentration clearly decreased to 18 x 10<sup>6</sup>, 27 x 10<sup>6 </sup>and 50 x 10<sup>6 </sup>in the abnormal semen samples of German shepherd, Rottweiler and pit-bull dogs, respectively, while the sperm abnormalities increased in the abnormal ejaculates of different breeds of dogs. Moreover, percentages of sperm viability were 45%, 30% and 50% in German shepherd, Rottweiler and pit-bull dogs, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from abnormal semen samples either in single or mixed infections. <em>S. aureus</em> was the dominant bacteria causing single infection followed by <em>E. coli</em>. In mixed infections, <em>S. aureus</em>+ <em>E. coli</em> were the highest, followed by <em>S. aureus</em> + <em>Streptococcus</em> spp. Sensitivity of antibiotics against isolated bacteria revealed that levofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against microorganisms, followed by ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, sperm patterns of abnormal semen deteriorated in motility, concentration, morphology, and viability. <em>S. aureus</em> is the predominate microbe contaminating dogs’ ejaculates. Levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were the ideal antibiotics to be used against the bacteria in semen samples of stud dogs. The Comet assay could be used to assess dog sperm oxidative damage and, subsequently, evaluate semen quality.</p> 2022-09-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM Lumpy Skin Disease: An Overview of its Status and Influence on Milk Production in India 2023-03-30T05:00:36+00:00 Rishi Kant Rajpal Diwakar Shivesh Singh Sengar <p>An infectious condition known as lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle is caused&nbsp;by the Neethling virus, a member of the Poxviridae family of viruses. Fever, swollen superficial lymph nodes, and many nodules (2–5 cm in diameter) on the skin and mucosal membranes are the disease's symptoms. Moreover, infected cattle may become lame and experience edematous swelling in their limbs. The illness has a high mortality rate and is transmitted by flies, mosquitoes, and even ticks. The virus has significant economic implications since it frequently causes chronic skin damage in animals, decreasing the market value of their hide. In addition, the illness frequently causes chronic weakness, decreased milk supply, stunted development, infertility, abortion, and even death. In India, it was reported in year 2019 in eastern states in West Bengal and Odisha and spread thereby to other states with severe implications. This article covers the current status of the disease and its influence on milk production in India.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PSM