Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Yemeni Croton socatranus
Keywords:Croton socatranus, Acute oral toxicity, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity.
Croton socatranus is a shrub or small tree endemic to Socotra Island and is widespread on the island. It has some interesting ethnomedicinal uses. The dry powder was subjected to extraction till exhaustion using methanol. The methanol extract was evaluated phytochemically, chromatographically, and for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Toxicological and cytotoxic effects were also investigated. Microscopic examination of C. socatranus aerial parts confirmed the presence of xylem vessels, sclerenchymatous cells, slender-shaped fibers, vessel elements with scalariform thickenings, palisade cells, paracytic stomata, and stellate trichomes. Phytochemical investigation showed that the methanol extract possessed alkaloids, high levels of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes, phytosterol, and saponin. Notably, the methanol extract of C. socatranus did not cause any mortality or behavioral changes in the rats even at the highest tested dose (5000mg/kg of methanol extract). It showed inhibition zone against Streptococcus pneumonia and Escherichia coli and MIC values were between 156.25- 655 µg/ml for gram-positive strains while 625-2500 µg/ml for gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity was recorded against ten tested fungal species. Furthermore, a dose-dependent antioxidant activity was observed. C. socatranus extract displayed moderate cytotoxic activity against eight cancerous cell lines. The extract was highly effective on MCF-7, HepG-2, and RD cell lines when compared with other cell lines and the IC50 was less than 30 µg/ml which suggests the presence of selective cytotoxic compounds. Further investigations are required to understand the possible mechanism(s) of action of this extract on various cancer cells and the isolation of active phytochemicals.
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